The communication standards of radio frequency tags are the basis for tag chip design. The current international communication standards related to RFID mainly include ISO/IEC 18000 standard, ISO11784/ISO11785 standard protocol, ISO/IEC 14443 standard, ISO/IEC 15693 standard, EPC standard, etc.
1. ISO/TEC 18000 is based on the international standard for radio frequency identification and can be mainly subdivided into the following parts:
1). ISO 18000-1, air interface general parameters, which standardizes the communication parameter table and basic rules of intellectual property rights that are commonly observed in the air interface communication protocol. In this way, the standards corresponding to each frequency band do not need to repeatedly stipulate the same content.
2). ISO 18000-2, air interface parameters below 135KHz frequency, which specifies the physical interface for communication between tags and readers. The reader should have the ability to communicate with Type+A (FDX) and Type+B (HDX) tags; specifies protocols and instructions plus anti-collision methods for multi-tag communication.
3). ISO 18000-3, air interface parameters at 13.56MHz frequency, which specifies the physical interface, protocols and commands between the reader and tag plus anti-collision methods. The anti-collision protocol can be divided into two modes, and mode 1 is divided into a basic type and two extended protocols . Mode 2 uses the time-frequency multiplexing FTDMA protocol, with a total of 8 channels, which is suitable for situations where the number of tags is large.
4). ISO 18000-4, air interface parameters at 2.45GHz frequency, 2.45GHz air interface communication parameters, which specifies the physical interface, protocols and commands between the reader and tag plus anti-collision methods. The standard includes two modes. Mode 1 is a passive tag that operates in a reader-writer-first manner; Mode 2 is an active tag that operates in a tag-first manner.
5). ISO 18000-6, air interface parameters at 860-960MHz frequency: It specifies the physical interface, protocols and commands between the reader and tag plus anti-collision methods. It contains three types of passive tag interface protocols: TypeA, TypeB and TypeC. The communication distance can reach up to more than 10m. Among them, TypeC was drafted by EPCglobal and approved in July 2006. It has advantages in recognition speed, reading speed,writing speed, data capacity, anti-collision, information security, frequency band adaptability, anti-interference, etc., and it is the most widely used. In addition, the current passive radio frequency band applications are relatively concentrated in 902-928mhz, and 865-868mhz.
6). ISO 18000-7, air interface parameters at 433MHz frequency, 433+MHz active air interface communication parameters, which specifies the physical interface, protocols and commands between the reader and tag plus anti-collision methods . Active tags have a wide reading range and are suitable for tracking large fixed assets.
2. ISO11784, ISO11785 standard protocol: The low-frequency band operating frequency range is 30kHz ~ 300kHz. Typical operating frequencies are: 125KHz, 133KHz, 134.2khz. The communication distance of low-frequency tags is generally less than 1 meter.
ISO 11784 and ISO11785 respectively specify the code structure and technical guidelines for animal identification. The standard does not specify the style and size of the transponder, so it can be designed in various forms suitable for the animals involved, such as glass tubes, ear tags or collars. wait.
3. ISO 14443: The international standard ISO14443 defines two signal interfaces: TypeA and TypeB. ISO14443A and B are not compatible with each other.
ISO14443A: Generally used for access control cards, bus cards and small stored-value consumption cards, etc., and has a high market share.
ISO14443B: Due to the relatively high encryption coefficient, it is more suitable for CPU cards and is generally used for ID cards, passports, UnionPay cards, etc.
4. ISO 15693: This is a long-distance contactless communication protocol. Compared with ISO 14443, the reading distance is farther. It is mainly used in situations where a large number of labels need to be quickly identified, such as inventory management, logistics tracking, etc. ISO 15693 has a faster communication rate, but its anti-collision capability is weaker than ISO 14443.